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Previous research has revealed that patients with acute myeloid leukemia who also have a particular mutation in a gene called NPM1 have a higher rate of remission with chemotherapy. About one-third of leukemia patients possess this favorable mutation, but until now, how it helps improve outcomes has remained unknown.

Scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago report on how this mutation helps improve sensitivity to chemotherapy in patients in the journal JCI Insight.

The protein coded for by the NPM1 gene affects the location and activity of another protein called FOXM1. FOXM1 activates other cancer-promoting genes and has been found to be elevated in cancer cells. The presence of FOXM1, especially at high levels, is a strong predictor of worse treatment outcomes and decreased survival in patients with cancer. When the NPM1 gene is mutated, FOXM1 can’t activate additional oncogenes, so patients with this mutation tend to respond better to chemotherapy. A drug that targets and incapacitates FOXM1 in patients without the beneficial NPM1 mutation may help improve the efficacy of chemotherapy.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the bone marrow. In AML, stem cells that would normally differentiate into blood cells instead multiply unchecked and

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