Calcification of soft tissues occurs in the cardiovascular system with age, one of the processes that causes arterial stiffening and other pathogenic conditions such as aortic stenosis. Considered at a very high level, this happens because a fraction of cells in the blood vessel walls malfunction and begin to act in ways more appropriate to a bone environment, laying down deposits of minerals. The causes of this malfunction are incompletely understood, but evidence suggests that the presence of senescent cells and their inflammatory signaling is an important cause.
In this open access paper, researchers investigate cellular signals carried via exosomes in the context of vascular calcification. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicle, small membrane-bound packages of molecules that carry a sizable fraction of the signaling traffic between cells. In recent years, scientists have been paying a lot more attention to these packages, as they appear to carry most of the signals that are important in, for example, the beneficial effects of stem cell transplants. They are also probably a sizable part of the harmful signals produced by senescent cells. While the authors
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