A range of mitochondrially targeted antioxidant compounds have been developed over the past decade or more: SkQ1, SS-31, and MitoQ, the subject of the trial here. The present consensus in the research community is that ordinary antioxidants are probably, on balance, somewhat harmful if used over the long term. They sabotage the oxidative signaling need for the beneficial response to exercise, for example. Mitochondrially targeted antioxidants, on the other hand, appear to modestly slow aging in a range of species, and have proven an effective treatment for some conditions characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, meaning the excessive production of oxidative molecules and resultant damage to molecular machinery. It can be debated on a case by case basis as to the degree to which this is a compensatory treatment versus addressing a specific causative issue in any given condition.
Mitochondria in cells generate oxidative molecules in the course of producing chemical energy stores to power cellular processes. Moderately raised production can result in overall benefits, because cells react with increased housekeeping activities. Greatly increased production is harmful, however, and appears as aging progresses due to the accumulation of mitochondrial damage. It raises the level
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