Arguably, age-related joint issues are where comparatively simple, first generation stem cell therapies have so far had their greatest and most reliable impact. To pick one example, mesenchymal stem cell therapies effectively reduce chronic inflammation for an extended period of time, achieving this result via the signals secreted by the transplanted stem cells in the comparatively short time they remain alive in the patient. Since arthritis is an inflammatory condition, and given that chronic inflammation interferes in the processes of healing, a reduction may spur some degree of increased tissue maintenance activity and repair. Reports suggest that this consequent regeneration is a lot less reliable than the reduction of inflammation, however.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent debilitating joint disorder characterized by erosion of articular cartilage. The degradation of network of collagen and proteoglycan in OA cartilage leads to a loss in tensile strength and shear properties of cartilage. Interestingly, though OA manifests as loss of the articular cartilage, it also includes all tissues of the joint, particularly the subchondral bone. Besides aging, the increase in level of accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), oxidative stress, and senescence-related
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