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IMAGE: This is a magnification of pulmonary vein tissue showing signs of pulmonary vein stenosis (plump abnormal cells stained dark magenta). view more 

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Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare disease in which abnormal cells build up inside the veins responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart. It restricts blood flow through these vessels, eventually sealing them off entirely if left untreated. Typically affecting young children, the most severe form of PVS progresses very quickly and can cause death within a matter of months after diagnosis.

Until recently, treatment options have been limited to keeping the pulmonary veins open through catheterization or surgery. Yet this approach only removes the cells but does nothing to prevent their regrowth. Now, a clinical trial shows that adding chemotherapy to a treatment regimen including catheterization and surgery can deter abnormal cellular growth and finally give children with PVS a chance to grow up.

Results of the trial, run by the Boston Children’s Hospital Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Program, were recently published in the Journal of Pediatrics.

“Through this approach, we’ve created the first-ever population of survivors who are living with severe PVS,” says Christina Ireland, RN, MS, FNP, who has managed

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